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E-mail: jangel austin. Jacqueline L. The rapid median age in the nation also reflects the growing proportion of people 65 or older, and is expected to triple to This article examines how the age and gender structure of Mexico offers important insights about current and future political and social stability, as well as economic development. The shift in age structure will result in increased dependency of retirees on the working-age population in the next 20 years.

Mexico does not provide universal coverage of social security benefits and less than half of the labor force is covered by any pension or retirement plan. As a result, elderly Mexicans often continue working into old age. The high total poverty rate in the country, especially among Aguascalientes mature women older population magnifies the problem of the potential dependency burden. The article ends with a discussion of key public policy issues related to aging in Mexico.

All nations in the Americas face a common demographic reality of extended longevity, reductions in fertility, and changes in family structure and supports. However, Mexico is undergoing a rapid aging process that is taking place in a context of wide economic disparities, few viable public strategies for supporting an aging population and continuing reliance on families for care and economic security of older adults.

The aim of this article is to provide a general overview of population aging in Mexico and its social context, including relevant policies in place for older adults, the core activities of gerontological research and key emerging issues. In Mexico, adults 60 years and older will almost triple from 6.

Age and gender structure of Mexico provide important insights about anticipated pace of political and social change, as well as economic development.

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Estimates show that the total Mexican population will reach million in while the group 65 years and older reaches almost Census Bureau, Sex differences will continue with women representing a larger share of the oldest-old due to their higher life expectancy. Mexican population age pyramid Bythe old-age dependency ratio in Mexico will have risen to 29 older adults per working-age persons from 9.

The higher ratio represents a workforce with more dependents, Aguascalientes mature women reducing personal savings due to higher employment taxes. This ratio is expected to quadruple from to and will result in increased dependency of retirees on the working age population, clearly shown in Figure 2 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Old-age dependency ratio: Population aged 65 and older as percentage of population 15— Source: OECD.

Pensions at a glance Chapter 7. Demographic old-age dependency ratios: Historical and projected values, — Poverty among older people is a major issue in Mexico and around the world.

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Many older adults in extreme poverty do not have enough money for food and basic necessities, and working in later adulthood is common. Several factors are associated with older adult poverty.

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Social security and comprehensive benefits are funded through a three-party mechanism where the formal employee, employer, and the government contribute. This includes private sector workers and the self-employed. Similar three-party mechanisms are in place for federal and state level public servants as well as state companies such as the oil company PEMEX. The informal sector includes mainly low-wage, low-income workers employed in part-time or seasonal work and those self-employed or in family businesses.

Of those, very few have access to low-paying pensions Hughes, Inonly Consequently, there are large segments of Mexican elders without access to a safety net. Given the low rate of older adults receiving retirement pensions, the government of Mexico City, followed by other states, introduced noncontributory pension schemes for adults 65 years and older. Starting in the Federal Government, through the Social Development Ministry, established a universal pension program targeted to older adults who do not receive any contributory or noncontributory pensions.

Trends in population research in Mexico have developed along several trajectories, and in many ways Aguascalientes mature women the sentinel survey approach used in the Aguascalientes mature women States. Inthe National Institute of Geriatrics NIGpart of the National Institutes of Health, was created to respond to the challenges of the aging population, through gerontological research, education and training of specialized staff, and development of models of care, further increasing research and knowledge on aging. In addition, aging research is conducted in universities, both public and private institutions.

Likewise, at the university level, the Interdisciplinary University Seminar on Aging and Old Age at the National Autonomous University UNAM is an integral component of aging research and fosters networks and interdisciplinary collaborations. Given the relevance of knowing the extent of aging research in Mexico, in the NIG and the National Network on Aging and Social Development created the first inventory of human resources and infrastructure of aging-related research in the country National Institute of Geriatrics, In developing the catalogue, researchers, academics and other professionals involved in aging research were identified.

About one-third of aging professionals worked in Mexico City and were employed at public and private universities or graduate institutions.

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For decades, numerous national economic and health surveys have been available. However, most economic and social studies on aging and older adults were quantitative and qualitative studies conducted at the local level, with smaller samples. Until recently, longitudinal internationally comparable data were lacking. Table 1 presents a summary of publicly available studies of older adults in Mexico. To date, four waves of data have been collected, the baseline survey in with follow-up surveys in, and Within the context of rapid aging and increasing interest of health in old age, the National Health and Nutrition Survey ENSANUThas augmented the information available on older adults within a long tradition of Mexican health surveys, including a specific sample of adults 60 years and older.

In Mexico today, family transfers and earnings are far more prevalent than pensions. As a result, family transfers are more important as Mexican individuals get older. From age 65 on, intergenerational family transfers are a major source of income for low-income, older Mexicans. Overall, informal mechanisms such as family support and working past retirement age play an important role in providing most of the income for older people.

Housing and living arrangements are major policy concerns in dealing with growing aging populations. For older adults, household extension is a common response to cope with poverty. Pooling resources enables older adults and their grown children to Aguascalientes mature women benefit in making ends meet.

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In Mexico, the national average household size is 3. The majority of older adults live in the community, with their spouse, children, or other close relatives Monkkonen, However, the composition of households with Aguascalientes mature women adults has changed in recent years. Older adults with migrant children are more likely to live alone than those whose children remain in Mexico Kanaiaupuni, As of yet, we know little concerning how home ownership and living arrangements affect the well-being of both parents and their adult children across these stages of older adulthood in Mexico.

Mexico does not have a housing policy for poor older adults. In Mexico, housing assistance programs are attached to social security institutions. Issues related to transnational families in providing old-age support are ificant. Although there is considerable return migration to Mexico, the Mexican Health and Aging Study MHAS shows that the vast majority of return migrants are younger and most return to Mexico after a short residence in the United States. Mudrazija et al.

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Very few older Mexicans with longer U. One out of five Mexicans over 50 have at least one child currently residing in United States and those with migrant children are more likely to receive aid than those without offspring. Established family networks on both sides of the United States-Mexico border facilitate binational residency of migrants if they possess proper documentation for U. Remittances to elders are both common and sizeable between Mexico and the United States.

Remittances to elders do not follow the same patterns as those found in studies of undifferentiated remittances Flippen, Although remittances to family still living in Mexico already exist, some evidence demonstrates that Aguascalientes mature women dynamics of transnational families are changing and giving rise to declining remittances as Mexicans focus on their U.

It is also common for some older adults to have resided and worked in the United States for many years and upon return become eligible for health care in the United States from public and private programs. For transnational families, remittances to Mexico clearly increase family welfare and are often used to pay for health care, but their long-term effects on intergenerational financial relationships are not known Aguila et al. The issues surrounding portability of social security and health benefits have become increasingly important due to increased labor and retirement mobility between Mexico and the United States.

Certain return Mexican migrants may receive Mexico social security benefits, depending on their work histories in Mexico. An even smaller proportion may be eligible to receive U. Individuals with truncated labor histories must satisfy requirements in each system separately in order to qualify for benefits. Although in theory, it is government policy that all Mexicans have a right to health care, the Mexican Health System is segmented and therefore access to, as well as the quality of care received, depends upon individual health insurance status.

Although the Mexican Social Institute covers the highest percentage of insured older adults, it is estimated that a large fraction of the increase in health insurance is due to the creation of the Seguro Popular de Salud Health Coverage for All in The World Bank, The program has achieved Aguascalientes mature women advances toward universal coverage The World Bank,but are yet to be documented regarding population penetration in affording universal access and health care provision.

A ificant challenge that Mexico confronts is the dual-burden of disease—the combination of preventing and treating both acute and chronic illness.

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Formal long-term care policies and systems for the older adults are lacking in Mexico, and consequently most long-term care to all population groups is provided within the household. Currently, the few services that are available are divided among the different institutions that provide them. As life spans increase, families are becoming smaller and more women are entering the work force, thereby decreasing their availability for caregiving. In the future, traditional eldercare arrangements may give way to the role of government and nongovernmental actors, including faith-based organizations.

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The redistribution of time and financial resources allocated by the middle and younger generations when frailty emerges in the older generation has serious consequences for the capacity to afford family elder care-giving Abramson, The ways in which Mexico will address the problem of rapid aging remain unclear and require intensive investigation to inform this process. For sure, health and social care as well as economic wellbeing are pressing issues, and the differences between urban and rural areas pose greater challenges. The main pressing issues are:.

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